THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
By. St. Bonaventure
If the being of God is an indubitable truth
It asks first whether the being of God is an
That this is so is demonstrated by following a
The first is this: any truth naturally imprinted in all minds is indubitable.
- The second is this: any truth proclaimed to every creature is indubitable.
- The third way is this: any truth most certain and evident in itself is unquestionable.
As to the first way we proceed in this way; proving with arguments of authority and reason that the being of God is imprinted in all rational minds.
1. John of Damascus, in the first book (De Fide Orthod.), The third chapter, states that: "The knowledge of God's existence is naturally imprinted in us."
2. Thus Hugh of St. Victor (De Sacram. P. Iii, c. I) says that "God has set to the point where the notion of self in man that because he could never understand the essence in as a whole, he could not ignore the existence at least. "
3. Likewise Boethius (iii De consol., Prose 2): "It is in the minds of men the desire of the true and good"; but the desire of the true good presupposes knowledge of it, so in the minds of men have impressed the notion of the true good and a desire for that which is highly desirable. And this good is God; therefore etc.
4. Augustine in several steps of the De Trinitate (ix, 2, 2, ff .; xii, 4, 4 nss .; xiv, 8, ll seq.), Says that the image is in the mind, in the news and in ' love, and that the character of image you find in the soul in relation to God: if therefore is naturally imprinted in the soul the image of God, the soul naturally innate knowledge of God. But the first thing you know God is his existence; therefore the knowledge of it is naturally innate in the human mind.
5. Aristotle (ii, Posters., 15) says that "it would be fitting that we possessed noble things and we did not know"; Therefore, since the existence of God a noble truth, most present to us, it is fitting that this truth remains hidden to the human intellect.
6. Also: is innate in the minds of men a desire for wisdom, because, says Aristotle (i, Metaf., I): "All men by nature desire to know"; but wisdom is highly desirable that eternal; therefore it is deeply inherent in the human mind the desire of such wisdom. But, as we said before, there is no love if not of what is known in some way; therefore it is necessary that some notion of the supreme wisdom is imprinted in the human mind. But this is first and foremost know that God exists or that wisdom.
7. In addition, the desire for happiness is inherent in so much about us that no one can doubt whether or not to be blessed, as it says in several steps Augustine (De Trin. XllI, 3, 3, 4, 7 ss .; 20, 25); but happiness is to supreme good that is God; Therefore, if such a desire can not exist without some news, it is necessary that that concept by which we know that there is the highest good, or God, is etched in the same soul.
8. It is also imprinted in the soul a desire for peace and impressed so much that it is also looking into its opposite; and this desire can not be removed even the damned and the demons, as is demonstrated in the nineteenth book of the City of God (13, lss.). If, therefore, the peace of a rational mind can not be found except in a body immutable and eternal and the desire presupposes a notion or knowledge, knowledge of an entity immutable and eternal is innate in rational spirit.
9. Moreover, it is inherent in the soul hatred of falsehood; but all hatred born of love; so it is much more rooted in the soul the love of truth and especially the truth that the soul was made. If then God is the truth first, necessarily follow that the notion of the first truth is inherent in the intelligence rational. - That the hatred of the error, then, is inherent in the human mind, it appears that no one wants to be deceived, as Augustine says in the tenth book of the Confessions (23, 33 et seq.). - That hatred is caused by 'love still shows Augustine in the fourteenth book of the City of God (7, 2); for no one he hates something if not because he loves its opposite.
10. Moreover, it is imprinted in the soul
rational self-knowledge, because the soul is present to itself, and knowable by
but God is most present and knowable soul
so it is imprinted in the same soul the
notion of his God. If you say that is not the same thing because the
soul is proportionate to itself, but God is not proportionate to the soul, I
would answer: your objection does not apply, because if the proportionality It
was necessary to knowledge, the soul would not reach ever the knowledge of God
as it can not be compared to him neither by nature nor by grace, nor for glory.
With these reasons, therefore, it shows that the existence of God is an indubitable truth naturally imprinted in human intelligence; for no one doubts if it's what you do not possess a certain knowledge.
This is demonstrated for the second route so; every truth proclaimed by all creatures is unquestionable; but every creature proclaims the existence of God. - What, then, every creature Resistance proclamations of God, proves based on ten aspects of things and propositions immediately obvious.
11. The first is this: if there is the body that comes after is the entity that comes first because the body that comes next depends on what comes first; So if there is a set of entities that are after, and there must be a first body. If, therefore, you must admit a before and an after in the creatures, it is necessary that all the creatures implies and proclaims the existence of a first principle.
12. In addition, if there is a body that depends on another, there is also the body that does not depend on another, because nothing can pass himself by not being to being; Therefore, there must be a first reason for that is first in the entity, which was not produced by another. Therefore, if the entity that depends on another is created that institution and the lender does not depends on another is that body and is uncreated God, all the different types of body imply the existence of God.
13. In addition, if there is the body can be offered the necessary authority because the can says indifference to being and non-being; but it can not be an entity to be and not be indifferent if not because of something that is being fully determined. If, therefore, the entity need that has absolutely no chance of being is not only God and each other entity has any chance of not being, each different type of organization implies the existence of God.
14. In addition, if there is a related entity must also be the absolute authority since its not such if not compared to the absolute, but the absolute authority can not be said to be dependent on anyone but because he gets nothing from another; and this is the first entity; while every other body has any dependence; so it is necessary for each different type of organization implies the existence of God.
15. Furthermore, if there is a limited or partial body there is the entity that is absolutely, because the body part can neither be, nor be conceived if not by means of the entity which is absolutely; and the limited body can not exist and be conceived except by perfect body, as deprivation it does not conceive, but by the positive. Therefore, if any entity created is partial, only the body is uncreated entity that is absolutely perfect; therefore it is necessary for each different type of organization involves and assume the existence of God.
16. In addition, if there is an institution ordained to another, there must be a self-sufficient entity, otherwise there would not be good; but the body is not self-sufficient except that body of which there can be no better, that is the same God; Therefore, since all the other agencies it is ordered to him, all of the entities implies the existence and the notion of God.
17. Moreover, if there is an entity for participation must be an institution for essence, because participation does not refer to something if not essentially possessed by something 'more because each predicate accidental leads back to a predicate essential; but any entity other than the first, which is God, has being by participation, while he alone has to be the essence.
18. In addition, if there is power in the institution must be the entity in place since the power can not pass the time except by virtue of an entity in place and the power would not be such if it could pass the time ; if, therefore, that entity that is pure act and has not in itself any chance can not be God, it is necessary that every entity other than the first implies the existence of God.
19. Moreover, if there is an entity compound must be a simple body because the compound does not have the being by itself and is therefore required which has its origin from a simple body but the simple entity, which does not have in itself any composition, can not be that the institution first; so every other entity implies God.
20. In addition, if there is a changing institution must be an entity immutable, because according to what evidence Aristotle (Fis. Viii, 5; Metaf. Xi, 7), the movement comes from a body building and to order an institution property; If, therefore, the body altogether immutable can not be but that 'first being that is God and other bodies created by the very fact of being created are changing, it is necessary for the existence of God may be inferred from all different type of institution.
From these ten conditions necessary and obvious is inferred that all the different types or areas of the institution imply and proclaim the existence of God. If, therefore, each of these truth is undeniable, it is necessary for the existence of God is a truth indubitable.
The same conclusion is demonstrated for the third way as well: any truth so certain that it can not be denied without contradiction is an indubitable truth; but the existence of God is such; therefore etc. The greater is immediately evident, the less is demonstrated in various ways.
21. Indeed Anselmo, in the fourth chapter of Proslogio, says: "Thank you. Good Lord, because what first thought for your gift, now I understand the influence of your light, so that, even if I did not want to believe that you exist, I could not know. "
22. And this truth is proven by Anselmo as follows: God is not what you may think the greater; but what can not be thought not to exist is more true of what can be thought not to exist; Therefore, if God is what you can not think the major. God can not be thought not to exist.
23. In addition, the body of which we can not think of the greater of such a nature that can not be thought if it also exists in reality; as if there would not be the only thought that entity can not think the greater; therefore, if such a body is thought, it is necessary that there is in fact in this way it can not be thought not to exist.
24. Still Anselmo (Prosl. 5) affermia:
"You are all that is better there than die does not exist";
but every indubitable truth is better than any
must be attributed rather to be no doubt that being doubtful.
25. Furthermore, Augustine says in Soliloqui (i, 8,5) that no truth can be seen only in the first truth; but the truth which is seen every other truth is most indubitable; therefore, the existence of God is not only a indubitable truth, but a truth of which we can not think of anything more indubitable; therefore it is a truth that they can not be thought of not existing.
26. Augustine (Sol. I, 15, 27 ff .; II, 2.2; and 15:28) shows this same truth as follows: everything that you can think you can also enunciate; but in no way it can be stated that there is no God without affirm together that God exists. And this is demonstrated as follows: for if there is no real truth is that there is no truth, and if this is true, there is some truth and if there is some truth, there is the truth first, and, if not It can say that God does not exist you can not even think.
27. The greater and more universal truth is so much better known; but this truth with which it is said that there is the first institution is the first of all the truth is in the ontological order and in the logic; therefore it is necessary that she herself is most certain and evident. But the truth of the axioms and propositions more universal is so obvious because of their priorities that they can not be thought of as non-existent; therefore no intelligence may think that the same first truth does not exist or doubt its existence.
28. "No statement is more true than that in which the same property is predicated of itself" (Boethius, Periherm. Aristot., I, 14); but when I say that God is, God is said to be identical with God because God is his very being; therefore no proposition is true and obvious one that says: God is, therefore, no one can think that they is false or doubt.
29. Furthermore, no one can ignore that this proposition: the best is very good, to be true, or think that it is false; but the best is a very complete body and every body, by the very fact of being very complete, it is also in place; Therefore, if the best is very good, the best is. - Similarly you can argue: If God is God, God is; but the antecedent is true to the point that it can not be thought not to exist; Therefore, the existence of God is an indubitable truth [...].
For an understanding of the things above it it
should be noted that one thing is said to unquestionable deprivation doubtful;
now doubtful is said in two ways: either for the
discourse of reason or defect of reason. The first way of thinking about the knowable and the knower; The second way of understanding only the acquaintance. Doubtful in the first sense it is that some truth because she lacks the character of evidence or itself, or by reference to an average conclusive, or in relation to the intellect learning. But in none of these ways of understanding it was felt that this truth is the existence of God.
It is certain at the same intellect knowing that the knowledge of this truth is innate in rational mind because the mind has the character of image thanks to which are inherent in it the natural desire, the notion and the memory of him in the image which was ilei created and to which naturally tends to be able to be beatified.
The truth of 'God's existence is even more certain in relation to reason conclusive. In fact all creatures, is considered according to their positive properties that defective, with high-sounding voices proclaim the existence of God which they need because of their lack of perfection and from which they receive perfection. So according to their more or less perfect proclaim some great, some more, some with great voice that God exists.
And the truth is most certain in itself for the fact that truth is a first and very immediate in which not only the notion of the predicate is contained in the subject, but it is the same that is being preached and the subject of which is preached. Therefore as supremely repugnant to our intellect unite the terms differentissimi each other, because no intellect can think that something exists or does not exist at the same time, so repugnant to the division of something that is totally one and indivisible; for which, as is quite obviously false that the same thing exists and does not exist, or that there is so high or not exist at all, so it is a truth evident that the first and highest authority exists. - Therefore, if you believe what indubitable removes all doubt for discourse of reason, the existence of God is a truth beyond doubt because both the intellect penetrates into himself, that is come out of himself, whether you look over itself if proceeds rationally knows with certainty and undoubtedly the existence of God.
If we consider the undoubted in the second sense, because that takes away the doubt that comes from a defect of reason, then you can give it to a defect of the men could doubt someone clicks God exists, and that for a triple failure of ' intellect acquaintance:
1) or at the time of learning,
2) or at the time of judging,
3) or at the time of bringing to a first principle. -
1) The act of learning, doubt fits when the meaning of God's name is not taken so reno and in its fullness, but only for some aspect, as did the heathen who thought that God was all about which it was superior to man and could foresee the future in some way and therefore believed that the idols were gods and worshiped them as gods because sometimes gave truthful responses on the future. -
2) Q ow when the judge, the question is when the judgment is partial, as when the fool sees not do justice manifestly wicked and concludes that there is no providence in the universe and, therefore, not it exists in a first rector and supreme God as lofty and glorious. -
3) Similarly, what to bring to a defect in the first principle, the question arises when a carnal mind can not get if not up to what the senses show, namely, the corporeal; for which reason some believed that this visible sun which occupies a prominent place among the creatures body was God, because they were not able to go as far as incorporeal substance, or until the first principles of things. - And so the proposition God exists can create a doubt caused by a defect of the intellect learns, or judges, or that leads to a first principle; and according to such a bad way of thinking, some intellect may think that God does not exist, because it does not include enough integrity of the meaning of God. - But that intellect that fully understands the significance of the name: God and believes that God It is what you can not think of the greater, not only has no doubt that God exists, but in no way can think that God does not exist. Therefore we must admit as true the reasons that prove it exists.
The contemplation of God in his image imprinted in the powers of the soul  
1. Since the two previous degrees, leading us to
God through his footsteps through which He shines in all his creatures, brought
us to the point of returning to
we, in our spirit which shines in the divine image, now, thirdly, returning to ourselves and leaving out the atrium, we must strive to see God as one
mirror, in the holy   3, in front of the tabernacle; there the light of truth shines like a candelabra in front of our mind in which shines the image of the Blessed Trinity.
Enter, then, within you and watch how ardently your mind loves itself; now, it can not love if you do not know and could not know if he had self-remembering, because our intelligence learns not only what is present to our memory; see, therefore, not with the eye of flesh, but with that of reason, that your soul has a threefold power. Consider the activities and relationships of these three powers, and you will see God in yourself as in his image, which means to see in a mirror "in aenigmate."
2. The activity of the memory throws believe and
represent not only the realities, body and time, but also the reality that
follow, which are simple and eternal.
- In fact, the memory retains the past with remembrance, the present and the future with apprehension with the prediction. - Feels even simple things, that is, the principles of continuous and discrete quantity as the point, the moment and the unity without which it would be impossible to remember or think about those things that they have principle. - Does it consider also the principles and axioms of science as eternal realities and so forever because never can forget them, so long as retains the use of reason, and if you hear them mention, can not approve and grant them his assent, and not as if he sensed again, but as if they recognize as inherent and family.
The best evidence can propose to someone, "The principle of non-contradiction" (Arist., I, Post., 10) or the principle: "The whole is greater than the part", or any other principle that the "right inside" can not contradict . Considering now all temporal things, that is the past, present and future, memory carries in himself the image of eternity, whose indivisible present extends to all time. - With the ability to believe the simple things, the memory proves to have not only the opportunity to be informed by the external images, but also by a higher principle, possessing in itself simple shapes that can not go through the gates of the senses fantasies sensitive. - Considering the principles and axioms of the sciences, it demonstrates that he has the immutable light always present to itself, which is reminiscent of the truths that never change. - And so, by the activities of memory it appears that the soul itself is an image and likeness of God, so much present in itself and having God so present that you can include in an act and be "potentially capable of owning it and participate in it" ( Augustine, De Trin. xiv, 8, 11).
3. The activities of the intellectual power, then,
is to understand the meaning of the terms, propositions and arguments.
- Now the intellect understands the meaning
terms of when he learns by defining what is one thing. But any definition is done using general terms, and these are defined by even more general terms, until you get to the supreme and most general concepts without which it can not be defined even more specific concepts. So if you do not know what the body itself, one can not adequately know the definition of any specific substance. And the body itself can not be known except in union with its properties that are: united, truth and goodness. The body, then, can be thought partial or complete, perfect or imperfect, in power or in place, as a way of being or entity simpliciter, as partial or total, transitory or permanent, conditional or unconditional, as to not mix or be as pure body, as an employee or absolute, next or before, changing or unchanging, simple or compound; and since "the privations and defects can not be known except by means of positive concepts" (Averroes, De Anima, text. 25), our intellect does not realize fully the concept of no entity created if not the ' idea of the institution pure, very modern, very complete and absolute that is the body without other additions and eternal, in which are found in their pure reason of all things. How, then, the intellect could know that this' body is deficient and incomplete if he had any knowledge of the institution free of any fault? The same is true of the other properties mentioned. Let's say, then, that our intellect really meant propositions, when he knows with certainty that they are true; and be able to say that this can not be deceived in that knowledge.
It knows, in fact, that the truth can not be different and that, therefore, immutable. But since our mind is changing, it could not see the truth shine immutably if not with the help of a light that shines immutably, which may not be a fickle creature. It therefore knows in that light that enlightens every man intervener in this world, which is the true light, the Word from the beginning is with God (Jn. 1,1 and 9).
Our intellect perceives really a consequence when he sees that the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises. And this can be seen not only when the premises are needed, but also when they refer to contingent realities as: "if a man runs, a man moves." And our intellect perceives this relationship must not only about institutions, but also about non-entities. For as when a man exists, he follows: "If a man runs, it moves", this conditional proposition is true even if a man does not exist.
The need for such a consequence does not arise from material existence of the thing, because it is contingent, nor the existence of the thing in our soul, because then it would be a sham if it did not exist in reality; but it is derived from a model that is eternal in art, in virtue of which things have an order and a relationship between them modeled on the representation of that art eternal. All understanding, then, that reasoning with truth, Augustine says in De vera Religion (39, 72), it is illuminated by the eternal truth, and it strives to achieve. - From which it is obvious that our intellect is joined to the same eternal truth as it can not grasp with certainty any truth if the truth is not taught it to him. You can therefore see, thinking about you, this truth that if you educate the passions and illusions sensitive not prevent him tea as clouds interposing between tea and the radius of the truth.
4. The operation of the power that leads to the choice is expressed in deliberation, judgment and desire. - The resolution is to seek what is best, whether this or that. But the best can not be defined as such only in relation to the excellent; and the ratio is the more or less resemblance to it than excellent; So no one knows if one thing is better than another if it does not know that it is more like excellent. And no one knows if it is similar to another does not know if this other; in fact I can not know if this is a similar to Peter I do not know who he is or do not know Peter. Thus the concept of the highest good is necessarily imprinted in everybody who has to decide.
But you get to a certain judgment on things to
resolve except by virtue of a law.
And no one judges with certainty according to a
law if it is not certain that that law is upright and that he should not judge
Now the human mind itself, but judges can not
judge the law by which it judges;
so that law is superior to the human mind which
judges by this because it is imprinted.
But nothing is greater than the human mind if not
the One who created it;
therefore the deliberative activity, if it acts in
full awareness when judges draws to God's laws.
The desire has as its principal object what draws him supremely. And supremely supremely he attracts what you love; but what is supremely love is happiness; and happiness do not own if not in good order, and last, because the human desire does not tend if not the highest good, or what leads to it or have a few pictures of that.
So great is the attractiveness of the highest good that the creature can not love anything but the desire for it. It is mistaken and errs when take picture and the statue for
the true reality.
See, therefore, how the soul is closer to God and memory, with its operations, leads to eternity, the intelligence to the truth, the will to sovereign goodness.
5. The order, the origin and the interplay of these faculties, lead us to the same Blessed Trinity. - In fact, the memory arises intelligence as its offspring, because we have intelligence when the image is in the memory is reflected in the top of the intellect and become word; from memory and from 'intelligence, then, gushing love as their link. These three faculties, namely: the mind-generating, the verb and love, are in the soul, memory, intelligence and will and are consubstantial, coequal, contemporary and compenetrantesi each other. If, therefore, God is perfect spirit, has memory, intelligence and will, has also generated the Word and Love resulting, which are necessarily different because the other one is generated and not essentially or accidentally but personally.
Therefore when the mind considers itself, then, as
through a mirror, it rises to the contemplation of the Blessed Trinity, the
Father, the Word and Love, of
three co-eternal, co-equal and consubstantial, existing in each other without contending with them, but all three being one God.
The contemplation of the divine unity in his first name that is being  
1. We can contemplate God not only inside and
outside of us, but also above us;
out of us through the imprint that he left in the
creatures within us through
His image engraved on our souls, and above us through the lumen which is marked on our mind which is the light of the eternal truth that "our minds are immediately informed" (Augustine, De div. quaest. lxxxiii, 51, 2-4). Those who have practiced in the first instance have already entered the lobby which is located in front of the tabernacle; those who exercised in the second degree entered the holy; those who have passed through the third degree come with the High Priest in the Holy of Holies where, on the 'ark are the Cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat; Cherubini and these are the two ways or degrees by which we can contemplate the invisible and eternal perfections of God; The first concerns the essential attributes of God, the other properties of the divine persons.
2. The first way.
first and foremost, it makes us fix our eyes and
be in the same state that the first name of God is: God.
The second way makes us fix our gaze in the
well itself and say that this is the first name of God. The first relates mainly
to the Old Testament that proclaims above all the unity of the divine essence to
the fact that it was said to Moses: I am who I am (Exodus 3, 14). The second way
of understanding refers to the New Testament in which he determines the
plurality of the divine persons in the formula of baptism which is given in the
name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19). That's why our
teacher Christ, wanting to lead the evangelical perfection the young man had
kept the law, attributed primarily and exclusively to God the name of good. No
one, he says, is good but God alone (Luc. 18:19).
3. Those wishing therefore contemplate the invisible perceptions of God in the unity of its essence, first of all ask his gaze toward being and will see that it is so certain that it can not be thought not to exist, because it does not show itself to be pure if not fully putting to flight the non-being - as well as anything is nothing but the full escape being -. How, then, absolute nothingness possesses nothing of being nor of its properties, and so conversely, being possesses nothing of not being, nor in act nor in power, nor in truth, nor in our judgment. Now, since it is not being deprived of being, non-being it can not be known by our intellect except through being; being, however, is not conceived in relation to another since all that is known or is known as non-entity or as being in potentiality, or as a body in place. If, therefore, the non-being can not be understood except by the entity and the entity in power except by the authority in place and being expresses the pure act of the institution, it follows that being It is what is primarily conceived and that being is pure act. But this is not the be particular because the latter is a limited being as mixed with power, nor be similar because it does not possess topical as it does not even exist. Therefore the pure being in place may not be the divine being.
4. It is a strange
blindness that our intellect which does not reflect on what he sees before all
things, and without which he can not know anything. But as the eye
intent on observing the various differences of colors does not see the light through which can be seen the rest and, if he sees not realize it, so the eye of our mind intent on observing the particular beings and notifies the universal not be par excellence which is beyond any kind, although it is present for the first and through it knows other things. So it appears true that " the eye of our mind acts against the most obvious reality of nature as the eye of the bat in front of the light "
(Aristot., Metaf. The, 1) because, accustomed to the darkness of created beings and images of sensible realities, when he sees the light of the supreme being he seems to not see anything and do not understand that this very darkness is the greatest illumination of our minds, as is the eye which seems not to see anything when he sees the pure light.
5. Consider, then, if you can, being pure and you will realize that it can not be thought of as derived from another and therefore have to be thought of as absolutely first, that it can not come from nothing or from another. What indeed could be considered by itself if the same be there for him and not for themselves? -
That you will be as absolutely free and not be so without beginning or end, that is eternal. -
You will appear as not having in itself nothing but the same being and therefore nothing united, that is simple. -
It appears to be free from any
possibility since each can somehow not be of itself, and you will appear as so
It will appear without any possible defect and then as
most perfect. -
You will finally be
exempt from any possible diversity and therefore supremely one.
Therefore be pure, simple and absolute, it is the primary being, eternal, simple, very modern, perfect and supremely one.
3 Quaestiones disputatae. De Mysterio Trinitatis, q. i, art. 1; Opera, V, pp. 45-50.
4 Itinerarium mentis in Deum, chap. iii, Opera, v, pp. 303-305.
5 Here Bonaventure refers
to the three parts in which was divided by the
"tabernacle" Moses containing the ark of the covenant symbolized
by the tablets of the law and we are talking about in Exodus 26. These parties were:
the atrium, that for
Bonaventure symbolizes the sensible world; the holy,
symbolizing the human soul; and the holy of holies, symbolizing
the mystical vision of God
6 Itinerarium mentis in Deum, chap. v, nn. 1-5; Opera v, pp. 308-309.
 3 Quaestiones disputatae. De Mysterio Trinitatis, q. i, art. 1; Opera, V, pp. 45-50.
  Itinerarium mentis in Deum, chap. iii, Opera, v, pp. 303-305.
  Here Bonaventure
refers to the three parts in which was divided by the
"tabernacle" Moses containing the ark of the covenant symbolized
by the tablets of the law and we are talking about in Exodus 26. These parties were:
the atrium, that for
Bonaventure symbolizes the sensible world; the holy,
symbolizing the human soul; and the holy of holies, symbolizing
the mystical vision of God
  Itinerarium mentis in Deum, chap. v, nn. 1-5; Opera v, pp. 308-309.