A Scholastic List of Definitions for Philosophical Terms
In Latin (For precision and clarity) In English
1. Intellectus = habitus primorum principiorum speculativorum.
2. Sapientia = cognitio rerum omnium per altissimas causas.
3. Scientia = cognitio certa per causas.
4. Ars = recta ratio factibilium.
5. Prudentia = recta ratio agibilium.
6. Theologia = scientia de Deo ex Revelatione procedens.
7. Philosophia = scientia rerum omnium per causas altissimas, naturali ratione comparata.
8. Metaphysica = scientia entis inquantum entis.
9. Criteriologia = pars metaphisicae defensiva principiorum cognitionis humanae.
10. Synderesis = habitus primorum principiorum practicorum.
11. Cognoscere = Habere intentionaliter in se formam (sicut) alterius rei.
12. (seu.) = aliud fieri inquantum aliud.
13. Intelligere = cognoscere rerum essentias.
14. Scire = cognoscere causam propter quam res est, quod huius causa est, et non potest aliter se habere.
15. Sentire = cognoscere rerum materialium qualitates patibiles.
16. Veritas = adequatio rei et intellectus.
17. Veritas logica = adequatio intellectus ad rem.
18. Veritas ontologica = adequatio rei ad intellectum.
19. Intentio prima = actus quo mens in ens reale tendit.
20. Intentio secunda = actus quo mens in ens rationis tendit.
21. Intentio formalis = ipse actus mentis tendentis in aliquid.
22. Intentio objectiva = obiectum in quo mens tendit.
Prima Operatio Intellectus
23. Simplex apprehensio = operatio qua intellectus aliquam quidditatem intelligit, quin quidquam de ea affirmet.
24. Abstractio = operatio intellectus agentis qua ex pluribus in re coniunctis unum sine altero considerat.
25. Ens rationis = ens quod habet esse obiective in intellectu tantum.
26. Negatio = ens rationis quo non ens ad modum entis concipitur.
27. Conceptus = simplex intellectualis repraesentatio quidditatis alicuius rei.
28. Notio = Propria ratio qua res menti innotescit.
29. Analogia = habitudo diversorum inter se vi cuius eodem nomine designantur.
30. Analogia attributionis = habitudo unius vel plurium ad aliquod unum vi cuius nomen quod huic convenit in sensu proprio et stricto de illo vel illis dicitur.
31. Analogia proportionalitatis = aequalitas duarum proportionum inter se.
32. Notae conceptus = elementa vel aspectus intelligibiles huius conceptus quos mens in eo discernit et qui ad eum pertinent necessarie.
33. Terminus (oralis) = vox significativa ad placitum.
34. Universale = unum aptum inesse pluribus.
35. Universale in essendo = una natura in multis.
36. Universale in praedicando = una natura de multis.
37. Praedicabile = modus universalitatis quo unum pluribus inesse potest et de ipsis praedicari.
38. Genus = universale respiciens inferiora specie distincta, IN QUID INCOMPLETE.
39. Species = universale respiciens inferiora numero distincta, IN QUID COMPLETE.
40. Differentia specifica = universale respiciens inferiora, IN QUALE QUID.
41. Proprium = universale respiciens inferiora, in quale accidentaliter et necessarie.
42. Accidens = universale respiciens inferiora, in quale accidentaliter et contingenter.
43. Suppositio = termini pro re aliqua significanda usurpatio.
Secunda Operatio Intellectus
44. Iudicium = actus intellectus quo componit vel dividit affirmando vel negando.
45. Assensus = actus quo intellectus inhaeret iudicio formato.
46. Oratio = sequentia terminorum.
47. Propositio = oratio quae aliquid de aliquo affirmat vel negat.
48. Divisio = oratio rem vel nomen per suas partes distribuens.
49. Definitio = oratio naturam rei aut termini significationem exponens.
50. Primum principium = propositio per se nota omnibus.
51. Conscientia moralis = iudicium rationis practicae circa moralitatem actionum.
Tertia Operatio Intellectus
52. Ratiocinium = actus mentis quo convenientia vel repuqnantia duarum idearum infertur ex proportione quam habent cum una tertia notione.
53. Argumentum = oratio significans sequelam unius ex alio.
54. Syllogismus = ratiocinium quo, duabus propositionibus positis, alia infertur necessarie ex ipsa positione antecedentium.
55. Inductio = a singularibus sufficienter enumeratis, ad universale progressio.
56. Demonstratio = syllogismus faciens scire.
57. = syllogismus constans ex veris, primis, immediatis, prioribus, notioribus causisque conclusionis.
58. Transcendentale = universalis modus entis inquantum entis.
59. Ens = id cuius actus est esse.
60. = id quod habet esse.
61. = id quod exercet actum essendi.
62. Res = synonymum entis dicens potius eius essentiam.
63. Unum = ens indivisum.
64. Aliquid = ens divisum ab aliis et a non ente.
65. Verum = ens relate ad intellectum.
66. Bonum = ens relate ad appetitum.
67. Pulchrum = id quod apprehensum placet.
Actus – Potentia
68. Esse = id quo ens est, vel exsistit.
69. Exsistere = poni extra causas et extra nihil.
70. Consistere = ex componentibus componi.
71. Actus = entitas perficiens et determinans rem in suo ordine.
72. Perfectio = (late) actualitas quaecumque.
73. = (stricte) plenitudo entis cui nullus deficit actus ad eius plenam actualitatem requisitus.
74. Potentia = entitas imperfecta capax perfectionis.
75. Privatio = carentia perfectionis in subiecto apto.
76. Malum = privatio boni debiti.
77. Potentia obedientialis = elevabilitas naturae ad actum excedentem omnes naturales vires.
78. Motus = actus entis in potentia quatenus in potentia.
79. Necessarium = id quod non potest non esse.
80. Contingens = id quod potest non esse.
81. Praedicamentum = genus supremum entis.
82. Substantia = id cui competit esse in se et non in alia sicut in subiecto.
83. Subsistere = esse in se et non in alio sicut in subiecto.
84. Individuum = indivisum in se et divisum a quolibet alio.
85. Suppositum = substantia individua completa in ratione speciei.
86. Subsistentia = modus naturalis positivus terminans naturam in linea essentiae.
87. Persona = suppositum naturae rationalis.
88. Personalitas = subsistentia personae.
89. Materia = id ex quo aliquid fit.
90. Materia prima = subiectum primum ex quo, cum insit, fit aliquid et non per accidens.
91. Forma = elementum determinativum cuiuscumque essentiae.
92. Essentia = id quo ens est id quod est.
93. Natura = principium et causa motus et quietis eius in quo est per se et non secundum accidens.
94. Species = forma determinans complete essentiam rei.
95. Quidditas = synonymum essentiae, quo respondetur quaestioni super rem "quid est ?'
96. Anima = actus primus corporis in potentia viventis.
97. Vita = sui‑motio.
98. Accidens = id cui competit esse in alio et non in se sicut in subiecto inhaesionis.
99. Qualitas = accidens determinativum seu modificativum substantiae in seipsa.
100. Habitus = qualitas stabilis disponens subiectum ad bene vel male esse sive operari.
101. Dispositio = qualitas facile mobilis disponens subiectum ad bene vel male esse sive operari.
102. Potentia (operativa) = principium proximum agendi simpliciter et absolute.
103. Patibilis qualitas = accidens diu permanens sensibilem alterationem causans vel ab alteratione sensibili causatum.
104. Forma vel Figura = qualitas seu modus in corpore ex terminatione quantitatis.
105. Intellectus = potentia cognoscitiva essentiarum rerum.
106. Appetitus inclinatio sequens formam.
107. Voluntas = appetitus intellectivus.
108. Beatitudo = bonum perfectum intellectualis naturae.
109. Quantitas = accidens extensivum substantiae in partes.
110. Relatio = accidens cuius totum inesse est ad aliud se habere.
111. Actio = motus potentiae operativae ut a potentia procedens.
112. Passio = accidens per quod subiectum constituitur actu recipiens effectum ab agente.
113. Ubi = id ratione cuius res in loco constituitur.
114. Locus = corporis ambientis terminus primus immobilis.
115. Situs = accidens disponens rem locatam in ordine ad locum
= ordo partium in loco.
116. Quando = accidens in re durante, ex adiacentione temporis a quo rei illius duratio mensuratus est.
117. Tempus = numerus motus secundum prius et posterius.
118. Habitus = illa affectio quae in subiecto ex vestimento resultat.
Relationes – Comparationes
119. Relatio = ordo unius ad aliud.
120. Relatio transcendentalis = ordo entis absoluti per se ordinati.
121. Signum = id quod praeter speciem quam ingerit sensibus facit aliquid aliud in cognitionem devenire.
122. Principium = id a quo aliquid procedit quocumque modo.
123. Causa = omne quod influit esse rei.
124. Causa efficiens = id quod actione sua rem producit in esse.
125. Causa finalis = id propter quod aliquid fit.
126. Distincta = ea quorum unum non est aliud.
127. Diversa = ea quae nullam convenientiam habent, et seipsis differunt.
128. Differentia = ea quae aliquam convenientiam habent et per aliquid superadditum differunt.
129. Oppositio = habitudo plurium inter se vi cuius eidem sub eodem aspectu simul convenire nequeunt.
130. Oppositio contradictoria = oppositio inter rem eiusque negationem.
131. Oppositio privativa = oppositio inter rem eiusque privationem.
132. Oppositio contratia = oppositio inter ea quae in eodem genere maxime distant.
133. Oppositio relativa = oppositio inter ea quae ordinem sive respectum ad invicem dicunt.
134. Aeternitas = interminabilis vitae tota simul et perfecta possessio.
135. Creatio = productio ex nihilo et subjecti
1. Understanding = the habit of the first speculative principles.
2. Wisdom = knowledge of all things by the highest causes.
3. Science = certain knowledge through causes.
4. Art = the right reason of things to be made.
5. Prudence = the right reason of things to be done (operations).
6. Theology = science of God proceeding from Revelation.
7. Philosophy = science of all things through the highest causes, obtained by natural reason.
8. Metaphysics = science of being in so far as being.
9. Criteriology = part of metaphysics which defends the principles of human knowledge.
10. Synderesis = habit of the first practical principles.
11. To have knowledge = to have intentionally in oneself a form as the form of another.
12. (or) = to become another insofar as other.
13. To understand = to know the essences of things.
14. To know = to grasp . . .
(a) the cause telling why the thing is,
(b) the fact that it is the cause of it, and
(c) that it cannot be otherwise (the thing cannot have another cause). .
15. To sense = to know the passible qualities of material things.
16. Truth = conformity of thing and intellect.
17. Logical truth = conformity of intellect to thing.
18. Ontological truth = conformity of thing to intellect.
19. First intention = the act by which the mind tends to a real being.
20. Second intention = the act by which the mind tends to a being of reason.
21. Formal intention = the act itself of the mind tending towards something.
22. Objective intention = the object towards which the mind tends.
First Operation of the Intellect
23. Simple apprehension = the operation by which the intellect understands some quiddity without affirming anything about it.
24. Abstraction = this operation of the agent intellect which considers one thing without another out of several united in reality.
25. Being of reason = being which has objective being in the intellect alone.
26. Negation = being of reason by which non‑being is conceived as a being (Gredt 110; negation = genus of the being of reason).
27. Concept = simple intellectual representation of the quiddity of something.
28. Notion = proper reason by which the thing is made known to the mind.
29. Analogy = the mutual relation of diverse things by which they are designated by the same name.
30. Analogy of attribution = the relation of one or several things to some one thing by which the name applies properly and strictly to the latter is said also of the former(s).
31. Analogy of proportion = the mutual equality of two proportions.
32. The notes of a concept = the intelligible elements or aspects of this concept which the mind discerns and which belong to it necessarily.
33. Term (oral) = arbitrary vocal sign.
34. Universal = one apt to be inherent in many.
35. Universal in being = one nature in many.
36. Universal as predicable = one nature said of many.
37. Predicable = the mode of universality by which one thing can be in many and be predicated of them.
38. Genus = the universal in regards to its inferiors specifically distinct with incomplete quiddity.
39. Species = the universal in regards to its inferiors numerically distinct, with complete quiddity.
40. Specific difference = the universal in regards to its inferiors, as qualifying the quiddity.
41. Proper = the universal in regards to its inferiors, as qualifying accidentally and necessarily.
42. Accident = the universal in regards to its inferiors, as qualifying accidentally and contingently.
43. Supposition = the use of the term to signify something.
Second Operation of the Intellect
44. Judgment = the act of the intellect which composes or divides by affirming or denying.
45. Assent = the act by which the intellect adheres to a given judgment.
46. Oration (phrase) = sequence of terms.
47. Proposition = a phrase which affirms or denies something about something.
48. Division = a sentence which separates a thing or a noun into different parts.
49. Definition = the sequence which exposes the nature of a thing or the signification of a term.
50. First principle = a proposition known to all necessarily (per se).
51. Moral conscience = the judgment of the practical reason concerning the morality of the acts.
Third Operations of the Intellect
52. Reasoning = the act of the mind by which the convenience or disconvenience of two ideas is inferred by the proportion (conformity / difformity) which they have to a third notion.
53. Argument = a phrase which signifies the passage of one thing from another.
54. Syllogism = reasoning by which, out of two proportions, another is necessarily inferred from the affirmation of the premises.
55. Induction = progression towards a universal statement from singulars sufficiently enumerated.
56. Demonstration = a syllogism which makes something known.
57. = a syllogism based on the true, first, immediate, proper and more known causes of the conclusion.
58. Transcendental‑ a universal mode of being insofar as being.
59. Being = that whose act is to be.
60. = that which has being.
61. = that which exercises the act of being.
62. Thing = a synonym of being saying rather its essence.
63. One = undivided being.
64. Something = being divided from others and non‑being.
65. True = being in relation to the intellect.
66. Good = being in relation to the will.
67. Beautiful = what pleases when apprehended.
Act ‑ Potency
68. To be = that by which the being is, or exists.
69. To exist = to be placed outside of its causes and out of nothing.
70. To consist = to be composed out of components.
71. Act = an entity which perfects and determines a thing according to its nature.
72. Perfection = (broad sense) any act/entity
73. = (strict sense) the plenitude of a being which is lacking no act necessary to its full actuation.
74. Potency = imperfect entity capable of perfection.
75. Privation = lack of perfection in a disposed subject.
76. Evil = privation of a due good.
77. Obediential potency = the elevability of nature to an act exceeding all its natural powers.
78. Movement = the act of a being in potency insofar as it is in potency.
79. Necessary = that which cannot not be.
80. Contingent = that which can be not.
81. Predicament = the supreme genus of being.
82. Substance = that to which it belongs to be in itself and not in another as in a subject.
83. To subsist = to be in itself and not in another as in a subject.
84. Individual = a thing undivided in itself and divided from everything else.
85. Supposit = an individuated substance complete in its species.
86. Subsistence = a positive and natural mode terminating the nature in the line of essence.
87. Person = the supposit of a rational nature.
88. Personality = the subsistence of a person.
89. Matter = that out of which something becomes.
90. Prime matter = the first subject out of which, something while in it, becomes but not by accident.
91. Form = the determinative element of every essence.
92. Essence = that by which a being is what it is.
93. Nature = the principle and cause of motion and rest of a thing in which it is necessarily and not accidentally.
94. Species = the form determining completely the essence of a thing.
95. Quiddity = a synonym of essences by which one answers the question about a thing, "what is it?"
96. Soul = the first act of a body living in potency.
97. Life = self motion.
98. Accident = that to which it belongs to be in another an not in itself as in a subject.
99. Quality = accident determining or modifying the substance in itself.
100. Habit = stable quality disposing the subject to be or act well or bad.
101. Disposition = quality easily mobile disposing the subject to be or act well or bad.
102. Operative potency = proximate principle of acting simply and absolutely.
103. Passible quality = a lasting accident causing a sensible alteration or caused by a sensible alteration.
104. Form/figure = quality or mode in the body produced by the completion of quantity.
105. Intellect = the power of knowing the essences of things.
106. Appetite = the inclination seeking/following a form.
107. Will = intellective appetite.
108. Beatitude = perfect good of the intellective nature.
109. Quantity = the accident which extends the substance into different parts.
110. Relation = the accident whose whole being is to be ordered to another.
111. Action = the movement of the operative power insofar as it proceeds from the power.
112. Passion = the accident by which the subject becomes the receiver in act of the effect of the agent.
113. Where = that by which a thing is constituted in a place.
114. Place = first immobile extremity of the surface of a body.
115. Position = accident disposing the thing localized in relation to the place; the order of the parts in the place.
116. When = accident of a thing which has some duration, which is measured by addition of time.
117. Time = measure of the movement according to before and after.
118. Habit = that particular addition to the subject which results from a garment.
Relations ‑ Comparisons
119. Relation = the order of one thing to another.
120. Transcendental relation = the order of an absolute being ordered necessarily (per se).
121. Sign = that which, besides the species produced in the senses, reveals the knowledge of something else.
122. Principle = that from which something proceeds in any way.
123. Cause = whatever influences the being of a thing.
124. Efficient cause = that which by its action produces the thing in existence.
125. Final cause = that for the sake of which something becomes.
126. Distinct things = those things, one of which is not the other.
127. Diverse things = those things which have nothing in common, and differ among themselves.
128. Different things = those things which have something in common, and differ by some addition.
129. Opposition = relation between several things by which they cannot agree in the same thing under the same aspect simultaneously.
130. Contradictory opposition = the opposition between a thing and its negation.
131. Privative opposition = the opposition between a thing and its privation.
132. Contrary opposition = the opposition between those things which are most distant in the same genus.
133. Relative opposition = the opposition between those thing which are ordained or have respect to each other.
134. Eternity = wholesome, simultaneous, and perfect possession of the interminable life.
135. Creation = production from nothing of its own or of the subjects.
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