celebrated on the thirteenth day of January, 1547



Since there is being disseminated at this time, not without the loss
of many souls and grievous detriment to the unity of the Church, a certain
erroneous doctrine concerning justification, the holy, ecumenical and
general Council of Trent, lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, the most
reverend John Maria, Bishop of Praeneste de Monte, and Marcellus, priest
of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, cardinals of the holy Roman Church and
legates Apostolic a latere, presiding in the name of our most holy Father
and Lord in Christ, Paul III, by the providence of God, Pope, intends, for
the praise and glory of Almighty God, for the tranquillity of the Church
and the salvation of souls, to expound to all the faithful of Christ the
true and salutary doctrine of justification, which the Sun of justice,[1]
Jesus Christ, the author and finisher of our faith[2] taught, which the
Apostles transmitted and which the Catholic Church under the inspiration
of the Holy Ghost has always retained; strictly forbidding that anyone
henceforth presume to believe, preach or teach otherwise than is defined
and declared in the present decree.



The holy council declares first, that for a correct and clear
understanding of the doctrine of justification, it is necessary that each
one recognize and confess that since all men had lost innocence in the
prevarication of Adam,[3] having become unclean,[4] and, as the Apostle
says, by nature children of wrath,[5] as has been set forth in the decree
on original sin,[6] they were so far the servants of sin[7] and under the
power of the devil and of death, that not only the Gentiles by the force
of nature, but not even the Jews by the very letter of the law of Moses,
were able to be liberated or to rise therefrom, though free will, weakened
as it was in its powers and downward bent,[8] was by no means extinguished
in them.



Whence it came to pass that the heavenly Father, the Father of
mercies and the God of all comfort,[9] when the blessed fullness of time
was come,[10] sent to men Jesus Christ, His own Son, who had both before
the law and during the time of the law been announced and promised to many
of the holy fathers,[11] that he might redeem the Jews who were under the
law,[12] and that the Gentiles who followed not after justice[13] might
attain to justice, and that all men might receive the adoption of sons.
Him has God proposed as a propitiator through faith in his blood[14] for
our sins, and not for our sins only, but also for those of the whole



But though He died for all,[16] yet all do not receive the benefit of
His death, but those only to whom the merit of His passion is
communicated; because as truly as men would not be born unjust, if they
were not born through propagation of the seed of Adam, since by that
propagation they contract through him, when they are conceived, injustice
as their own, so if they were not born again in Christ, they would never
be justified, since in that new birth there is bestowed upon them, through
the merit of His passion, the grace by which they are made just. For this
benefit the Apostle exhorts us always to give thanks to the Father, who
hath made us worthy to be partakers of the lot of the saints in light, and
hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into
the kingdom of the Son of his love, in whom we have redemption and
remission of sins.[17]




In which words is given a brief description of the justification of
the sinner, as being a translation from that state in which man is born a
child of the first Adam, to the state of grace and of the adoption of the
sons of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ, our Savior. This
translation however cannot, since promulgation of the Gospel, be effected
except through the laver of regeneration or its desire, as it is written:
Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter
into the kingdom of God.[18]



It is furthermore declared that in adults the beginning of that
justification must proceed from the predisposing grace of God through
Jesus Christ, that is, from His vocation, whereby, without any merits on
their part, they are called; that they who by sin had been cut off from
God, may be disposed through His quickening and helping grace to convert
themselves to their own justification by freely assenting to and
cooperating with that grace; so that, while God touches the heart of man
through the illumination of the Holy Ghost, man himself neither does
absolutely nothing while receiving that inspiration, since he can also
reject it, nor yet is he able by his own free will and without the grace
of God to move himself to justice in His sight. Hence, when it is said in
the sacred writings: Turn ye to me, and I will turn to you,[19] we are
reminded of our liberty; and when we reply: Convert us, O Lord, to thee,
and we shall be converted,[20] we confess that we need the grace of God.



Now, they [the adults] are disposed to that justice when, aroused and
aided by divine grace, receiving faith by hearing,[21] they are moved
freely toward God, believing to be true what has been divinely revealed
and promised, especially that the sinner is justified by God by his grace,
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus;[22] and when,
understanding themselves to be sinners, they, by turning themselves from
the fear of divine justice, by which they are salutarily aroused, to
consider the mercy of God, are raised to hope, trusting that God will be
propitious to them for Christ's sake; and they begin to love Him as the
fountain of all justice, and on that account are moved against sin by a
certain hatred and detestation, that is, by that repentance that must be
performed before baptism;[23] finally, when they resolve to receive
baptism, to begin a new life and to keep the commandments of God. Of this
disposition it is written: He that cometh to God, must believe that he
is, and is a rewarder to them that seek him;[24] and, Be of good faith,
son, thy sins are forgiven thee;[25] and, The fear of the Lord driveth out
sin;[26] and, Do penance, and be baptized every one of you in the name of
Jesus Christ, for the remission of your sins, and you shall receive the
gift of the Holy Ghost;[27] and, Going, therefore, teach ye all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded
you;[28] finally, Prepare your hearts unto the Lord.[29]



This disposition or preparation is followed by justification itself,
which is not only a remission of sins but also the sanctification and
renewal of the inward man through the voluntary reception of the grace and
gifts whereby an unjust man becomes just and from being an enemy becomes a
friend, that he may be an heir according to hope of life everlasting.[30]
The causes of this justification are: the final cause is the glory of God
and of Christ and life everlasting; the efficient cause is the merciful
God who washes and sanctifies[31] gratuitously, signing and anointing with
the holy Spirit of promise, who is the pledge of our inheritance,[32] the
meritorious cause is His most beloved only begotten, our Lord Jesus
Christ, who, when we were enemies,[33] for the exceeding charity wherewith
he loved us,[34] merited for us justification by His most holy passion on
the wood of the cross and made satisfaction for us to God the Father, the
instrumental cause is the sacrament of baptism, which is the sacrament of
faith,[35] without which no man was ever justified finally, the single
formal cause is the justice of God, not that by which He Himself is just,
but that by which He makes us just, that, namely, with which we being
endowed by Him, are renewed in the spirit of our mind,[36] and not only
are we reputed but we are truly called and are just, receiving justice
within us, each one according to his own measure, which the Holy Ghost
distributes to everyone as He wills,[37] and according to each one's
disposition and cooperation. For though no one can be just except he to
whom the merits of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ are communicated,
yet this takes place in that justification of the sinner, when by the
merit of the most holy passion, the charity of God is poured forth by the
Holy Ghost in the hearts[38] of those who are justified and inheres in
them; whence man through Jesus Christ, in whom he is ingrafted, receives
in that justification, together with the remission of sins, all these
infused at the same time, namely, faith, hope and charity. For faith,
unless hope and charity be added to it, neither unites man perfectly with
Christ nor makes him a living member of His body.[39] For which reason it
is most truly said that faith without works is dead[40] and of no profit,
and in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything nor
uncircumcision, but faith that worketh by charity.[41] This faith,
conformably to Apostolic tradition, catechumens ask of the Church before
the sacrament of baptism, when they ask for the faith that gives eternal
life, which without hope and charity faith cannot give. Whence also they
hear immediately the word of Christ: If thou wilt enter into life, keep
the commandments.[42] Wherefore, when receiving true and Christian
justice, they are commanded, immediately on being born again, to preserve
it pure and spotless, as the first robe[43] given them through Christ
Jesus in place of that which Adam by his disobedience lost for himself and
for us, so that they may bear it before the tribunal of our Lord Jesus
Christ and may have life eternal.



But when the Apostle says that man is justified by faith and
freely,[44] these words are to be understood in that sense in which the
uninterrupted unanimity of the Catholic Church has held and expressed
them, namely, that we are therefore said to be justified by faith, because
faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of all
justification, without which it is impossible to please God[45] and to
come to the fellowship of His sons; and we are therefore said to be
justified gratuitously, because none of those things that precede
justification, whether faith or works, merit the grace of justification.
For, if by grace, it is not now by works, otherwise, as the Apostle says,
grace is no more grace.[46]



But though it is necessary to believe that sins neither are remitted
nor ever have been remitted except gratuitously by divine mercy for
Christ's sake, yet it must not be said that sins are forgiven or have been
forgiven to anyone who boasts of his confidence and certainty of the
remission of his sins,[47] resting on that alone, though among heretics
and schismatics this vain and ungodly confidence may be and in our
troubled times indeed is found and preached with untiring fury against the
Catholic Church. Moreover, it must not be maintained, that they who are
truly justified must needs, without any doubt whatever, convince
themselves that they are justified, and that no one is absolved from sins
and justified except he that believes with certainty that he is absolved
and justified,[48] and that absolution and justification are effected by
this faith alone, as if he who does not believe this, doubts the promises
of God and the efficacy of the death and resurrection of Christ. For as
no pious person ought to doubt the mercy of God, the merit of Christ and
the virtue and efficacy of the sacraments, so each one, when he considers
himself and his own weakness and indisposition, may have fear and
apprehension concerning his own grace, since no one can know with the
certainty of faith, which cannot be subject to error, that he has obtained
the grace of God.



Having, therefore, been thus justified and made the friends and
domestics of God,[49] advancing from virtue to virtue,[50] they are
renewed, as the Apostle says, day by day,[51] that is, mortifying the
members[52] of their flesh, and presenting them as instruments of justice
unto sanctification,[53] they, through the observance of the commandments
of God and of the Church, faith cooperating with good works, increase in
that justice received through the grace of Christ and are further
justified, as it is written: He that is just, let him be justified
still;[54] and, Be not afraid to be justified even to death;[55] and
again, Do you see that by works a man is justified, and not by faith
only?[56] This increase of justice holy Church asks for when she prays:
"Give unto us, O Lord, an increase of faith, hope and charity."[57]




But no one, however much justified, should consider himself exempt
from the observance of the commandments; no one should use that rash
statement, once forbidden by the Fathers under anathema, that the
observance of the commandments of God is impossible for one that is
justified. For God does not command impossibilities, but by commanding
admonishes thee to do what thou canst and to pray for what thou canst not,
and aids thee that thou mayest be able.[58] His commandments are not
heavy,[59] and his yoke is sweet and burden light.[60] For they who are
the sons of God love Christ, but they who love Him, keep His commandments,
as He Himself testifies;[61] which, indeed, with the divine help they can
do. For though during this mortal life, men, however holy and just, fall
at times into at least light and daily sins, which are also called venial,
they do not on that account cease to be just, for that petition of the
just, forgive us our trespasses,[62] is both humble and true; for which
reason the just ought to feel themselves the more obliged to walk in the
way of justice, for being now freed from sin and made servants of God,[63]
they are able, living soberly, justly and godly,[64] to proceed onward
through Jesus Christ, by whom they have access unto this grace.[65] For
God does not forsake those who have been once justified by His grace,
unless He be first forsaken by them. Wherefore, no one ought to flatter
himself with faith alone, thinking that by faith alone he is made an heir
and will obtain the inheritance, even though he suffer not with christ,
that he may be also glorified with him.[66] For even Christ Himself, as
the Apostle says, whereas he was the Son of God, he learned obedience by
the things which he suffered, and being consummated, he became to all who
obey him the cause of eternal salvation.[67] For which reason the same
Apostle admonishes those justified, saying: Know you not that they who
run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveth the prize? So run that
you may obtain. I therefore so run, not as at an uncertainty; I so fight,
not as one beating the air, but I chastise my body and bring it into
subjection; lest perhaps when I have preached to others, I myself should
become a castaway.[68] So also the prince of the Apostles, Peter: Labor
the more, that by good works you may make sure your calling and election.
For doing these things, you shall not sin at any time.[69] From which it
is clear that they are opposed to the orthodox teaching of religion who
maintain that the just man sins, venially at least, in every good
work;[70] or, what is more intolerable, that he merits eternal punishment;
and they also who assert that the just sin in all works, if, in order to
arouse their sloth and to encourage themselves to run the race, they, in
addition to this, that above all God may be glorified, have in view also
the eternal reward,[71] since it is written: I have inclined my heart to
do thy justifications on account of the reward;[72] and of Moses the
Apostle says; that he looked unto the reward.[73]



No one, moreover, so long as he lives this mortal life, ought in
regard to the sacred mystery of divine predestination, so far presume as
to state with absolute certainty that he is among the number of the
predestined,[74] as if it were true that the one justified either cannot
sin any more, or, if he does sin, that he ought to promise himself an
assured repentance. For except by special revelation, it cannot be known
whom God has chosen to Himself.



Similarly with regard to the gift of perseverance, of which it is
written: He that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved,[75] which
cannot be obtained from anyone except from Him who is able to make him
stand who stands,[76] that he may stand perseveringly, and to raise him
who falls, let no one promise himself herein something as certain with an
absolute certainty, though all ought to place and repose the firmest hope
in God's help. For God, unless men themselves fail in His grace, as he
has begun a good work, so will he perfect it, working to will and to
accomplish.[77] Nevertheless, let those who think themselves to stand,
take heed lest they fall,[78] and with fear and trembling work out their
salvation,[79] in labors, in watchings, in almsdeeds, in prayer, in
fastings and chastity. For knowing that they are born again unto the hope
of glory,[80] and not as yet unto glory, they ought to fear for the combat
that yet remains with the flesh, with the world and with the devil, in
which they cannot be victorious unless they be with the grace of God
obedient to the Apostle who says: We are debtors, not to the flesh, to
live according to the flesh; for if you live according to the flesh, you
shall die, but if by the spirit you mortify the deeds of the flesh, you
shall live.[81]



Those who through sin have forfeited and received grace of
justification, can again be justified when, moved by God, they exert
themselves to obtain through the sacrament of penance the recovery, by the
merits of Christ, of the grace lost.[82] For this manner of justification
is restoration for those fallen, which the holy Fathers have aptly called
a second plank after the shipwreck of grace lost.[83] For on behalf of
those who fall into sins after baptism, Christ Jesus instituted the
sacrament of penance when He said: Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins
you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall
retain, they are retained.[84] Hence, it must be taught that the
repentance of a Christian after his fall is very different from that at
his baptism, and that it includes not only a determination to avoid sins
and a hatred of them, or a contrite and humble heart,[85] but also the
sacramental confession of those sins, at least in desire, to be made in
its season, and sacerdotal absolution, as well as satisfaction by fasts,
alms, prayers and other devout exercises of the spiritual life, not indeed
for the eternal punishment, which is, together with the guilt, remitted
either by the sacrament or by the desire of the sacrament, but for the
temporal punishment which, as the sacred writings teach, is not always
wholly remitted, as is done in baptism, to those who, ungrateful to the
grace of God which they have received, have grieved the Holy Ghost[86] and
have not feared to violate the temple of God.[87] Of which repentance it
is written: Be mindful whence thou art fallen; do penance, and do the
first works;[88] and again, The sorrow that is according to God worketh
penance, steadfast unto salvation;[89] and again, Do penance, and bring
forth fruits worthy of penance.[90]



Against the subtle wits of some also, who by pleasing speeches and
good words seduce the hearts of the innocent,[91] it must be maintained
that the grace of justification once received is lost not only by
infidelity, whereby also faith itself is lost, but also by every other
mortal sin, though in this case faith is not lost; thus defending the
teaching of the divine law which excludes from the kingdom of God not only
unbelievers, but also the faithful [who are] fornicators, adulterers,
effeminate, liars with mankind, thieves, covetous, drunkards, railers,
extortioners,[92] and all others who commit deadly sins, from which with
the help of divine grace they can refrain, and on account of which they
are cut off from the grace of Christ.




Therefore, to men justified in this manner, whether they have
preserved uninterruptedly the grace received or recovered it when lost,
are to be pointed out the words of the Apostle: Abound in every good
work, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.[93] For God is
not unjust, that he should forget your work, and the love which you have
shown in his name;[94] and, Do not lose your confidence, which hath a
great reward.[95] Hence, to those who work well unto the end[96] and
trust in God, eternal life is to be offered, both as a grace mercifully
promised to the sons of God through Christ Jesus, and as a reward promised
by God himself, to be faithfully given to their good works and merits.[97]
For this is the crown of justice which after his fight and course the
Apostle declared was laid up for him, to be rendered to him by the just
judge, and not only to him, but also to all that love his coming.[98] For
since Christ Jesus Himself, as the head into the members and the vine into
the branches,[99] continually infuses strength into those justified, which
strength always precedes, accompanies and follows their good works, and
without which they could not in any manner be pleasing and meritorious
before God, we must believe that nothing further is wanting to those
justified to prevent them from being considered to have, by those very
works which have been done in God, fully satisfied the divine law
according to the state of this life and to have truly merited eternal
life, to be obtained in its [due] time, provided they depart [this life]
in grace,[100] since Christ our Savior says: If anyone shall drink of the
water that I will give him, he shall not thirst forever; but it shall
become in him a fountain of water springing up into life everlasting.[101]
Thus, neither is our own justice established as our own from
ourselves,[102] nor is the justice of God ignored or repudiated, for that
justice which is called ours, because we are justified by its inherence in
us, that same is [the justice] of God, because it is infused into us by
God through the merit of Christ. Nor must this be omitted, that although
in the sacred writings so much is attributed to good works, that even he
that shall give a drink of cold water to one of his least ones, Christ
promises, shall not lose his reward;[103] and the Apostle testifies that,
That which is at present momentary and light of our tribulation, worketh
for us above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory;[104]
nevertheless, far be it that a Christian should either trust or glory in
himself and not in the Lord,[105] whose bounty toward all men is so great
that He wishes the things that are His gifts to be their merits. And
since in many things we all offend,[106] each one ought to have before his
eyes not only the mercy and goodness but also the severity and judgment
[of God]; neither ought anyone to judge himself, even though he be not
conscious to himself of anything;[107] because the whole life of man is to
be examined and judged not by the judgment of man but of God, who will
bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the
counsels of the hearts, and then shall every man have praise from
God,[108] who, as it is written, will render to every man according to his

After this Catholic doctrine on justification, which whosoever does
not faithfully and firmly accept cannot be justified, it seemed good to
the holy council to add to these canons, that all may know not only what
they must hold and follow, but also what to avoid and shun.


Canon 1. If anyone says that man can be justified before God by his
own works, whether done by his own natural powers or through the teaching
of the law,[110] without divine grace through Jesus Christ, let him be

Canon 2. If anyone says that divine grace through Christ Jesus is
given for this only, that man may be able more easily to live justly and
to merit eternal life, as if by free will without grace he is able to do
both, though with hardship and difficulty, let him be anathema.

Canon 3. If anyone says that without the predisposing inspiration of
the Holy Ghost[111] and without His help, man can believe, hope, love or
be repentant as he ought,[112] so that the grace of justification may be
bestowed upon him, let him be anathema.

Canon 4. If anyone says that man's free will moved and aroused by
God, by assenting to God's call and action, in no way cooperates toward
disposing and preparing itself to obtain the grace of justification, that
it cannot refuse its assent if it wishes, but that, as something
inanimate, it does nothing whatever and is merely passive, let him be

Canon 5. If anyone says that after the sin of Adam man's free will
was lost and destroyed, or that it is a thing only in name, indeed a name
without a reality, a fiction introduced into the Church by Satan, let him
be anathema.

Canon 6. If anyone says that it is not in man's power to make his
ways evil, but that the works that are evil as well as those that are good
God produces, not permissively only but also propria et per se, so that
the treason of Judas is no less His own proper work than the vocation of
St. Paul, let him be anathema.

Canon 7. If anyone says that all works done before justification, in
whatever manner they may be done, are truly sins, or merit the hatred of
God; that the more earnestly one strives to dispose himself for grace, the
more grievously he sins, let him be anathema.

Canon 8. If anyone says that the fear of hell,[113] whereby, by
grieving for sins, we flee to the mercy of God or abstain from sinning, is
a sin or makes sinners worse, let him be anathema.

Canon 9. If anyone says that the sinner is justified by faith
alone,[114] meaning that nothing else is required to cooperate in order to
obtain the grace of justification, and that it is not in any way necessary
that he be prepared and disposed by the action of his own will, let him be

Canon 10. If anyone says that men are justified without the justice
of Christ,[115] whereby Her merited for us, or by that justice are
formally just, let him be anathema.

Canon 11. If anyone says that men are justified either by the sole
imputation of the justice of Christ or by the sole remission of sins, to
the exclusion of the grace and the charity which is poured forth in their
hearts by the Holy Ghost,[116] and remains in them, or also that the grace
by which we are justified is only the good will of God, let him be

Canon 12. If anyone says that justifying faith is nothing else than
confidence in divine mercy,[117] which remits sins for Christ's sake, or
that it is this confidence alone that justifies us, let him be anathema.

Canon 13. If anyone says that in order to obtain the remission of
sins it is necessary for every man to believe with certainty and without
any hesitation arising from his own weakness and indisposition that his
sins are forgiven him, let him be anathema.

Canon 14. If anyone says that man is absolved from his sins and
justified because he firmly believes that he is absolved and
justified,[118] or that no one is truly justified except him who believes
himself justified, and that by this faith alone absolution and
justification are effected, let him be anathema.

Canon 15. If anyone says that a man who is born again and justified
is bound ex fide to believe that he is certainly in the number of the
predestined,[119] let him be anathema.

Canon 16. If anyone says that he will for certain, with an absolute
and infallible certainty, have that great gift of perseverance even to the
end, unless he shall have learned this by a special revelation,[120] let
him be anathema.

Canon 17. If anyone says that the grace of justification is shared
by those only who are predestined to life, but that all others who are
called are called indeed but receive not grace, as if they are by divine
power predestined to evil, let him be anathema.

Canon 18. If anyone says that the commandments of God are, even for
one that is justified and constituted in grace,[121] impossible to
observe, let him be anathema.

Canon 19. If anyone says that nothing besides faith is commanded in
the Gospel, that other things are indifferent, neither commanded nor
forbidden, but free; or that the ten commandments in no way pertain to
Christians, let him be anathema.

Canon 20. If anyone says that a man who is justified and however
perfect is not bound to observe the commandments of God and the Church,
but only to believe,[122] as if the Gospel were a bare and absolute
promise of eternal life without the condition of observing the
commandments, let him be anathema.

Canon 21. If anyone says that Christ Jesus was given by God to men
as a redeemer in whom to trust, and not also as a legislator whom to obey,
let him be anathema.

Canon 22. If anyone says that the one justified either can without
the special help of God persevere in the justice received,[123] or that
with that help he cannot, let him be anathema.

Canon 23. If anyone says that a man once justified can sin no more,
nor lose grace,[124] and that therefore he that falls and sins was never
truly justified; or on the contrary, that he can during his whole life
avoid all sins, even those that are venial, except by a special privilege
from God, as the Church holds in regard to the Blessed Virgin, let him be

Canon 24. If anyone says that the justice received is not preserved
and also not increased before God through good works,[125] but that those
works are merely the fruits and signs of justification obtained, but not
the cause of its increase, let him be anathema.

Canon 25. If anyone says that in every good work the just man sins
at least venially,[126] or, what is more intolerable, mortally, and hence
merits eternal punishment, and that he is not damned for this reason only,
because God does not impute these works into damnation, let him be

Canon 26. If anyone says that the just ought not for the good works
done in God[127] to expect and hope for an eternal reward from God through
His mercy and the merit of Jesus Christ, if by doing well and by keeping
the divine commandments they persevere to the end,[128] let him be

Canon 27. If anyone says that there is no mortal sin except that of
unbelief,[129] or that grace once received is not lost through any other
sin however grievous and enormous except by that of unbelief, let him be

Canon 28. If anyone says that with the loss of grace through sin
faith is also lost with it, or that the faith which remains is not a true
faith, though it is not a living one, or that he who has faith without
charity is not a Christian, let him be anathema.

Canon 29. If anyone says that he who has fallen after baptism cannot
by the grace of God rise again,[130] or that he can indeed recover again
the lost justice but by faith alone without the sacrament of penance,
contrary to what the holy Roman and Universal Church, instructed by Christ
the Lord and His Apostles, has hitherto professed, observed and taught,
let him be anathema.

Canon 30. If anyone says that after the reception of the grace of
justification the guilt is so remitted and the debt of eternal punishment
so blotted out to every repentant sinner, that no debt of temporal
punishment remains to be discharged either in this world[131] or in
purgatory before the gates of heaven can be opened,[132] let him be

Canon 31. If anyone says that the one justified sins when he
performs good works with a view to an eternal reward,[133] let him be

Canon 32. If anyone says that the good works of the one justified
are in such manner the gifts of God that they are not also the good merits
of him justified; or that the one justified by the good works that hspect from the glory of God or the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ, and
does not rather illustrate the truth of our faith and no less the glory of
God and of Christ Jesus, let him be anathema.






The same holy council, the same legates of the Apostolic See
presiding, wishing to restore a very much collapsed ecclesiastical
discipline and to reform the depraved morals of the clergy and the
Christian people, has deemed it proper to begin with those who preside
over the major churches, for unblemished character in those who govern is
the salvation of those governed.[134] Trusting therefore that by the
mercy of our Lord and God and the prudent vigilance of the vicar of that
God on earth, it will surely come about that for the government of the
churches, a burden formidable even to the shoulders of angels, those who
are most worthy, whose previous life in its every stage, from their youth
to their riper years, laudably spent in the services of ecclesiastical
discipline, bears testimony in their favor, will be chosen in accordance
with the venerable ordinances of the holy Fathers,[135] it admonishes all
who under whatever name or title are set over patriarchal, primatial,
metropolitan and cathedral churches, and hereby wishes that they be
considered admonished, that taking heed to themselves and to the whole
flock, wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed them to rule the Church of God
which he hath purchased with his own blood,[136] that they be vigilant, as
the Apostle commands, labor in all things and fulfil their ministry.[137]
Let them know, however, that they cannot fulfil this if like hirelings
they desert the flocks committed to them[138] and do not attend to the
guardianship of their sheep, whose blood will be required at their hands
by the supreme judge;[139] since it is most certain that the shepherd's
excuse will not be accepted if the wolf devours the sheep and he knows it
not. and since there are some at this time, which is greatly to be
deplored, who, forgetful even of their own salvation and preferring
earthly things to the things of heaven and things human to things divine,
wander about at divers courts or keep themselves occupied with the care of
temporal affairs, their fold forsaken and their watchfulness over the
sheep committed to them neglected, it has seemed good to the holy council
to renew, as by virtue of the present decree it does renew, the old canons
promulgated against non-residents,[140] which on account of the disorders
of the times and of men have well-nigh fallen into desuetude; and
furthermore, for a more faithful residence of the same and for the reform
of morals in the Church, to ordain and decree in the manner following. If
anyone, by whatever dignity, rank and pre-eminence distinguished, shall,
by remaining outside of his diocese for a continuous period of six
months[141] without lawful impediment or just and reasonable causes,[142]
be absent from a patriarchal, primatial, metropolitan or cathedral church,
under whatever title, cause, name or right committed to him, he shall
incur ipsu jure the forfeiture of a fourth part of one year's revenues, to
be applied by the ecclesiastical superior to the church treasury and to
the poor of the locality. If he continues to absent himself for another
six months, he shall eo ipso forfeit another fourth part of the revenues,
to be applied in like manner.[143] If the contumacy proceed yet farther,
that he may be subject to a severer penalty of the sacred canons, the
metropolitan shall be bound to denounce the absent suffragan bishops, and
the oldest resident suffragan bishop shall be bound under penalty, to be
incurred ipso facto, of being forbidden entrance to the church,[144] to
denounce the absent metropolitan to the Roman pontiff by letter or
messenger within three months, that he, by the authority of his supreme
see, may take action against the non-resident prelates, as the degree of
contumacy of each may demand, and provide the churches with more useful
pastors, as he shall know in the Lord to be salutary and expedient.



Those inferior to bishops, who by title or in commendam hold any
ecclesiastical benefices that by law or custom require personal residence,
shall be appropriate measures be compelled by their ordinaries to reside
therein, according as it seems expedient to them for the good government
of the churches and the increase of divine worship, taking into account
the character of places and persons, and to no one shall privileges or
perpetual indults in favor of non-residence or the reception of revenues
during absence be of avail;[145] temporary permissions and dispensations,
however, granted solely on true and reasonable grounds and to be legally
proved before the ordinary, shall remain in force; in which cases,
nevertheless, it is the duty of the bishops, as delegated in this matter
by the Apostolic See, to see to it that the cura animarum is in no way
neglected by the appointment of competent vicars and the assignment of a
suitable portion of the revenues;[146] no privilege or exemption whatever
shall be of avail to anyone in this matter.



The prelates of the churches shall apply themselves prudently and
diligently to correct the excesses of their subjects, and no secular
cleric under pretext of a personal privilege, or a regular living outside
his monastery under pretext of a privilege of his order, shall, if he
transgresses, be considered exempt from being visited, punished and
corrected in accordance with the canonical enactments by the ordinary of
the locality as delegated in this matter by the Apostolic See.[147]



Chapters of cathedral and of other major churches and the members
thereof shall not by any exemptions, customs, judicial verdicts, oaths,
agreements, which bind only the originators thereof and not also their
successors, shield themselves so that they cannot even with Apostolic
authority be visited, corrected and amended in accordance with the
canonical statutes as often as shall be necessary by their own bishops and
other major prelates, by themselves alone or with those whom they shall
deem fit to accompany them.[148]



No bishop is allowed under pretext of any privilege to exercise
pontifical functions in the diocese of another, except with the expressed
permission of the ordinary of the place, and for those persons only who
are subject to the same ordinary.[149] If the contrary is done, the
bishop is ipso jure suspended from the exercise of pontifical functions
and those so ordained from the exercise of their orders.


Does it please you that the next following session be celebrated on
Thursday after the first Sunday of the approaching Lent, which will be the
third day of March?

They answered: It pleases us.


1. Mal. 4:2.
2. Heb. 12:2.
3. Rom. 5:12; 1 Cor. 15:22.
4. Is. 64:6.
5. Eph. 2:3.
6. Cf. Sess. V at the beginning.
7. Rom. 6:17, 20.
8. Cf. II Synod of Orange (529), c.25. Hardouin, II, 1101.
9. See II Cor. 1:3.
10. Gal. 4:4.
11. Gen. 49:10, 18.
12. Gal. 4:5.
13. Rom. 9:30.
14. Ibid., 3:25; Dist. I De poenit., passim.
15. See 1 John 2:2.
16. See II Cor. 5:15.
17. Col. 1:12-14.
18. John 3:5.
19. Zach. 1:3.
20. Lam. 5:21.
21. Rom. 10:17.
22. Ibid., 3:24.
23. Cf. Sess. XIV, chap. 4.
24. Heb. 11:6.
25. Matt. 9:2; Mark 2:5.
26. Ecclus. 1:27.
27. Acts 2:38; cc.13, 97, D.IV de cons.
28. Matt. 28:19f.
29. See 1 Kings 7:3.
30. Tit. 3:7.
31. See 1 Cor. 6:11.
32. Eph. 1:13f.
33. Rom. 5:10.
34. Eph. 2:4.
35. C.76, D.IV de cons.
36. Eph. 4:23.
37. See I Cor. 12:11.
38. Rom 5:5.
39. Cf. infra, chap. 10.
40. James 2:17, 20.
41. Gal 5:6, 6:15.
42. Matt. 19:17.
43. Luke 15:22; c.31, D.II de poenit.
44. Rom. 3:24; 5:1.
45. Heb. 11:6.
46. Rom. 11:6.
47. Cf. infra, can. 12 and 13.
48. Infra, can. 14.
49. Eph. 2:19.
50. Ps. 83:8.
51. See 2 Cor. 4:16.
52. Col. 3:5.
53. Rom. 6:13, 19.
54. Apoc. 22:11.
55. Ecclus. 18:22.
56. James 2:24.
57. Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost.
58. St. Augustine, De natura et gratia, c.43 (50), PL, XLIV, 271.
59. See 1 John 5:3.
60. Matt. 11:30.
61. John 14:23.
62. Matt. 6:12.
63. Rom. 6:18, 22.
64. Tit. 2:12.
65. Rom. 5:1f.
66. Ibid., 8:17.
67. Heb. 5:8f.
68. See 1 Cor. 9:24, 26f.
69. See 2 Pet. 1:10.
70. Cf. infra, can. 25.
71. Cf. infra, can. 31.
72. Ps. 118:112.
73. Heb. 11:26.
74. Cf. C.17, C.XXIV, q.3.
75. Matt. 10:22; 24:13.
76. Rom. 14:4.
77. Phil. 1:6, 2:13.
78. See 1 Cor. 10:12.
79. Phil. 2:12.
80. See 1 Pet. 1:3.
81. Rom. 8:12f.
82. Cf. infra, can. 23 and 29.
83. C.72, D.I de poenit.
84. John 20:22f.
85. Ps. 50:19.
86. Eph. 4:30.
87. See 1 Cor. 3:17.
88. Apoc. 2:5.
89. See II Cor. 7:10.
90. Matt. 3:2; 4:17; Luke 3:8.
91. Rom. 16:18.
92. See I Cor. 6:9f.; 1 Tim. 1:9f.
93. See I Cor. 15:58.
94. Heb. 6:10.
95. Heb. 10:35.
96. Matt. 10:22.
97. Rom. 6:22.
98. See II Tim. 4:8.
99. John 15:1f.
100. Apoc. 14:13.
101. John 4:13f.
102. Rom. 10:3; II Cor. 3:5.
103. Matt. 10:42; Mark 9:40.
104. See II Cor. 4:17.
105. See I Cor. 1:31; II Cor. 10:17.
106. James 3:2.
107. See I Cor. 4:3f.
108. Ibid., 4:5.
109. Matt. 16:27; Rom. 2:6; Apoc. 22:12.
110. Cf. supra, chaps. 1, 3.
111. Ibid., chap. 5.
112. Rom. 5:5.
113. Matt. 10:28; Luke 12:5.
114. Supra, chaps. 7, 8.
115. Gal. 2:16; supra, chap. 7.
116. Rom. 5:5.
117. Supra, chap. 9.
118. Supra, chap. 9.
119. Supra, chap. 12.
120. Ibid., chap. 13.
121. Ibid., chap. 11.
122. Cf. chap. cit.
123. Supra, chap. 13.
124. Ibid., chap. 14.
125. Ibid., chap. 10.
126. Ibid., chap. 11 at the end.
127. Ibid., chap. 16.
128. Matt. 24:13.
129. Supra, chap. 15.
130. Ibid., chap. 14.
131. Cf. Sess. XIV, chap. 8.
132. Cf. Sess. XXV at the beginning.
133. Supra, chap. 11 at the end.
134. C.5, D.LXI.
135. C.4, D.LIX; cc.2, 6, 8, D.LXI.
136. Acts 20:28.
137. See II Tim. 4:5.
138. John 10:12.
139. Ezech. 33:6.
140. C.20, C.VII, q.1 ff.; tit. X, De cler. non resid., III, 4 et in
VI, III, 3.
141. C.11, X, De cler. non resid., III, 4.
142. Cf. Sess. XXIII, chap. 1 de ref.
143. Cf. Sess. and chap. cit.
144. Cf. Schroeder, Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils,
p.353, no. 60.
145. C.15, VI, De rescript., I, 3.
146. C.34, VI, De elect., I, 6.
147. Cf. Sess. XIV, chap. 4 de ref.
148. Cf. Sess. XXIV, chap. 3 de ref. and Sess. XXV, chap. 6 de ref.
149. Cf. Sess. XIV, chaps. 2, 3 de ref. and Sess. XXIII, chap. 8 de